I am pleased to present to users the Edition of ORAL BIOFILM "SYMBIOTIC TO PATHOGENIC INTERACTION AND ASSOCIATED DISEASES" for Dental students with thoroughly updated contents. The book attempts to incorporate the knowledge about the microorganism that harms the intraoral soft & hard tissues and also deals how to diagnose and to prevent the future loss of tooth supporting structures. The volume of literature available in dentistry today is vast. However, during both our graduation as well as postgraduation, we always felt the need for a book which would help us to revise and update our knowledge. Emphasis is laid upon the language which is simple, understanding and exclusively designed for undergraduates, postgraduates, practitioners and teachers in the field. I await the response of this first edition, which would improve the next editions to come.
Radiographs are used to obtain visual image of bone around tooth and are most commonly used clinical aids to diagnose periodontal disease, patient prognosis and evaluation of treatment outcome. However, they are not substitute for clinical examination but they are only adjunct to clinical diagnosis. Radiographs have become an essential tool to diagnose periodontal progression. The flexibility associated with radiography does not come without cost. The use of radiographic imaging as an aid in diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases is widely accepted. Its main purpose is to assess level of alveolar bone including the pattern and extent of bone resorption. Radiographs can provide critical information for diagnosis and treatment planning, which can also serve as the baseline information for assessment of treatment outcomes. Decision to prescribe any radiographs is based on cost - benefit analysis. Decision to use radiographs is sometimes made solely for the purpose of collecting diagnostic information.
It is vivid from the above discussion that the smile we create should beesthetically appealing and functionally sound too. It is our duty to carefully diagnose,analyze and deliver the best to our patients, taking into account all of the discussedfactors. The smile designing done by us has to be as conservative as possible unlikethe past. Our aim has to be less reduction of tooth structure and greater esthetics anddurability. This simply means that cosmetic dentistry has to be a multispecialtybranch, wherein all treatments like orthodontics, periodontics and surgical procedureshave to be performed whenever deemed necessary (correcting all the componentsneeded for the smile designing like diastema closure, soft tissue around the teeth,pigmentation).
Dental Caries is a gradual disease process, with demineralization and remineralization occurring over time. The slower progression of carious lesions has afforded the dental profession the opportunity to diagnose at the earliest. So that management approach of dental caries can be changed from initial approach of extension for prevention to more conservative approach of conservation for prevention. An ideal diagnostic method is required, which is the one with high sensitivity and specificity, so that it diagnose the caries at its incipient stage. Early detection of incipient caries and limitation of caries activity prior to significant tooth destruction are primary goals of an effective diagnosis and treatment planning. This book throws light upon reliable, quantitative diagnosis to arrest the activity of the disease, required in clinical practice.
The book discusses the validity of the visual criteria in diagnosing initial caries and attemptes to critique the criteria as well. Early detection of initial dental caries predicts the onset of the deeper carious lesion approaching pulp complex. More sensitive diagnostic criteria identify incipient dental caries. They should be used in planning prevention programs as carious lesions may be more easily controlled. With early caries diagnosis a preventive treatment plan can be made. If the goal of management of dental caries is the preservation of tooth structure and promotion of oral health, then without doubt the early detection of pre-cavitated carious lesions is imperative for achieving it. This textbook provides an overview of the visual & visuo tactile criteria to diagnose initial caries in a comprehensive manner.
Since detection diatoms in a drowning death by Revenstorff in 1904, diatom test has been used as an important tool in diagnosis of drowning death and drowning site. Diatom test was thought to be gold standard in solving drowning mystery until many workers reportedly claimed that diatoms were also found in various organs in non-drowned deaths. As diatoms are very small in sizes, ubiquitous in nature, also found in soil, rocks, inhaled air, fish, sea food, and even in tooth paste, their entry into human circulation through inhalation or ingestion cannot be denied under normal patho-physiology. Considering more than 10,000 species of diatoms, it is almost an impossible task to identify and compare diatoms found in human organs and water sample, not only for inexperienced forensic pathologists but even also for most experienced limnologist. Conducting the present study on 150 subjects, 750 tissue samples, it is concluded that diatoms are also found in non-drowning deaths. Therefore, diatom test should not be used to diagnose drowning deaths unless "Automatic Diatom Identification And Classification" is available.
The current change in the approach to dental caries and the popularity of minimal invasive dentistry and preventive dentistry have resulted in an increased demand for materials to remineralize the tooth structure.These agents are an adjunct to preventive dentistry and research is on to find a suitable remineralizing agent that can result in complete reversal of the carious process and complete remineralization of the enamel and dentin.Clinicians should diagnose and treat non cavitated incipient lesions with an emphasis on remineralization and prevention rather than restoration.The greater our ability to arrest the disease and the more we take advantage of remineralization technologies, the better our patients are served.
There is an intimate anatomic and vascular connections between the pulp and the periodontium of teeth. If problem occurs in any of the structure it may lead to loss of the tooth and its surrounding structure. To diagnose and differentiate between pathology of the pulp and periodontium often challenging. Caries, restorative procedures, chemical and thermal insults, trauma, and periodontal disease leads to degeneration of the pulp tissue which may reach the supporting periodontium, leading to bone loss, tooth mobility, and sometimes sinus tract formation. If this occurs in the apical region, a periradicular lesion forms. If this occurs with crestal extension of the inflammation, a retrograde periodontitis or reverse pocket is formed. This book"endodontic periodontal relationships" basically deals with the intercommunication between pulpal and periodontal tissues,the effects of pulpal disease on the periodontium, periodontal disease and its effects on the pulp, and the classification, differential diagnosis, and management and prognosis of endodontic and periodontal problems.
Impaction of permanent canine is not a recent phenomenon, but one that is becoming increasingly observed. The canine is relatively resistant to dental caries and periodontal disease. Its major value lies in its long root, excellent bony support, and characteristic crown shape. These endowments allow it to exert a stabilizing influence on occlusal forces by assuming the major occlusal load during mastication. The highly developed proprioceptive ability of the canine helps protect the remaining teeth and add to the longevity of the dentition.The maxillary canine is perhaps the most variably positioned tooth in the human dentition, a feature important to the orthodontist who often must locate and move it.An impacted canine is usually easy to diagnose but the skill and expertise of the Orthodontist, Oral Surgeon And General Practioner are needed to bring it to its proper position.